Periodontics is a specialty of dentistry that deals with periodontal tissues, meaning the tissues that surround the tooth. These are the gums, the bone of the jaw that supports the teeth, the cementum (the substance that covers the surface of the root of the tooth) and the periodontal ligament (a space of fibers that holds the tooth in the bone of the jaw).

The main cause of periodontal diseases is bacteria that are normally present in our mouth without causing any problem. However, when oral hygiene is insufficient, these bacteria are not removed, so they multiply, they create a sticky film on the surface of the teeth and become pathogenic.

Although the presence of bacteria is necessary in the occurrence of periodontal disease, there are also other predisposing factors such as:

  • smoking
  • heredity
  • psychological factors such as stress
  • various systemic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus etc.
  • certain drugs, such as contraceptives, antihypertensives etc.
  • hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy or adolescence